Osteoporosis (What is bone era) What are the symptoms of bone era?
Osteoporosis / bone erosion is a disease characterized by weakening and fragile bones. Bone loss , if the diagnosis isdelayed for treatment , can go silently and cause fractures. While affecting all bones, most fractures of the hip, spine and wrist bones are clinically important.

Causes of Osteoporosis
Throughout our lives there is a continuous destruction-making situation in our bones. This is called bone turnover. In childhood and adolescence; the construction is faster than demolition, and as a result the bones become heavier, thicker and thicker, forming the adult bone structure. The highest bone mass is reached at the age of 30 and from this point the destruction becomes faster than the production. If optimal bone mass is not reached in the childhood and adolescence periods, when bone formation is at its maximum, therisk of developing osteoporosis in the coming yearswill be higher.

Reductions in bone mineral structure, especially calcium, result in weakening of the bones. Therefore, feeding on foods rich in calcium and vitamin D and exercising regularly will ensure that our bones are strong and healthy throughout life.

Risk factors in bone marrow -Guidance
: women are at higher risk than men
- Age: increased risk of osteoporosis as age increases -
Risk is higher in poorly constructed women - Risk is higher in
Caucasian and Asian women -
History of osteoporosis in the
family
-Postmenopausal period-
Amenorrheadue to anorexia nervosa, severe exercise and endocrinological disorders -Poor calcium diet
- Some drugs forbone erasure:
Immune system suppressing drugs (prednison, methotrexate ...)
Thyroid drugs
Anticonvulsants
Aluminum containing antacids
Cholesterol lowering drugs
Long term heparin treatment
Low estrogen levels in
females Low testosterone levels in males
Sedanter life
Low exposure to sunlight
Depression
Anorexia
Cigarette
Excessive tea, coffee and alcohol consumption
Some diseases:
Liver diseases (eg, cirrhosis)
Hyperthyroidism
Alcoholism
Marfan and Ehler-Danlos syndromes
Cushing's syndrome
Hyperparathyroidism
Cancer (lymphoma included)
Gastrointestinal tract disorders

Symptoms in the bone marrow
Osteoporosis is usually asymptomatic. Bone pain, the only possible symptom, occurs either in very advanced stages or when fractures occur.

Severe back pain due to fractures
Shortening due to kyphosis (bending of the spine)

Diagnosis on Bone Marrow
First, your doctor will question your symptoms and your CV in detail and your physical examination will be done. Several tests can then be performed to measure bone density. These tests are:

Dual-energy x-ray absorbtiometry (DEXA) - a method that can measure whole body
Single-energy x-ray absorbtiometry - makes measurements from arm and heel
Dental bone x-ray
Measurement of bone densitometry by ultrasonography
It is also used to evaluate minerals and bone destruction products like calcium some blood and urine tests may be required.

Osteoporosis Treatment
1) Changes in lifestyle:

a) Nutrition: Take care to feed on foods rich in calcium and vitamin D. We reduce caffeine and alcohol consumption as much as possible. Calcium-rich foods are

Milk and dairy products
Green leafy vegetables
Fish and seafood
Calcium-fortified products

b) Smoking: If you are smoking, you should leave

c) Exercise: Walking, stair climbing and especially weight lifting exercises increase muscle strength and coordination. It also has a strengthening effect in terms of bone health.

d) Supporting products: Support products containing vitamin D, magnesium, potassium and vitamin K can be used.

2) Drugs: Drugs are used to reduce bone loss, increase bone density, and reduce fracture risk.

Raloxifene - a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Osteoporosis can be used in the treatment and prevention.
Bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate) - Increase bone density. Reduce bone loss and fracture risk.
Calcitonin - Reduces bone loss, increases spinal bone density, and reduces pain associated with fractures.
Fluoride - Reduces pain and fracture risk
HRT (hormone replacement therapy) - Reduces bone loss. However, the most noticeable point in use is the profit-loss ratio.

3) Safety precautions: As osteoporosis patients are at high risk of fracture, they need to take preventive measures. (Eg, the use of canes to increase stability during walking, the use of flat, non-slip footwear ...)

Protection from osteoporosis
Changes in lifestyle, especially in early life (from childhood and adolescence), and care for nutrition are extremely important in preventing bone loss.

Balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
Regular exercise
Healthy lifestyle (do not smoke and reduce alcohol consumption)
Use of medications that prevent bone loss when the doctor feels appropriate.